Showing posts with label Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis. Show all posts

Wednesday, August 21, 2013

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Investigations in MS

Multiple sclerosis is diagnosed when neurological tests and neurological examination reveals with certainty lesions in more than one area of ??the central nervous system (usually in the brain and spinal cord) and the injury occurs more than one time in life.

The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is whether there is an association between the following conditions:
- Two separate episodes of neurologic symptoms such as weakness or clumsiness, vision problems, tingling or numbness or balance disorders that are objectified by a neurologist, each episode must have a duration of at least 24 hours and episodes should appear in at different time.
- Symptoms that indicate the existence of lesions in more than one region of the central nervous system and laboratory tests which highlights anomalies corresponding to multiple sclerosis.
- It is sure that there is no other condition that can cause these symptoms and the laboratory results.

Medical history and neurological examination can identify possible nervous system problems and often enough to suggest the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Tests can help confirm or exclude this diagnosis, if only history and neurological examination can not argue with certainty the existence of this disease.

Test for Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis

- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord: is performed to confirm the diagnosis and help the doctor decide which treatment is best. More than 90% of people with MS have an abnormal MRI, in people already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, MRI is also useful to assess disease progression (MRI and neurological examination may be helpful in formulating a prognosis after a first episode of symptoms that people with MS will make in future)
- Lumbar puncture can be performed to examine the cerebrospinal fluid: the majority of people with MS have abnormal results on this test, such as abnormal levels of proteins called immunoglobulins G (IgG) or a slight increase of leukocytes (white blood cells)
- Evoked potential test: can sometimes show the existence of anomalies of the brain and spinal cord and optic nerve, the neurological examination and other tests can not detect them, test called visual evoked potential is the most important of these types of tests diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Tests used to diagnose disorders associated

Urine tests may be needed to diagnose a problem in controlling bladder function in a person with multiple sclerosis.
Neuropsychological tests can be helpful in identifying emotional or thinking problems that may be present without the person to realize them. Typically, these tests are in the form of questions and answers.

Currently studies are in touch with a new test, which consists in identifying antibodies in multiple sclerosis, the hope is that it may help to identify those who will develop active multiple sclerosis after a first episode of symptoms. If this test proves to be effective, it can help diagnose multiple sclerosis assets.

It is important that the person already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis to be reviewed if new problems. New symptoms may be caused by other diseases treatable rather than multiple sclerosis or may be a sign that the disease has been a change that could affect treatment decisions.
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Wednesday, February 20, 2013

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Pregnancy in Multiple Sclerosis

Latest records show that women who are suffering from Multiple Sclerosis can finish safely the pregnancy and give birth to healthy babies, just like a pregnant woman without any risk.
According to these recent findings, published in a specialized journal in Brazil, if circumstances are favorable, the women diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis can have children without difficulties.

Multiple Sclerosis is a neurological disorder and occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the nerve fibers of the same people. Multiple Sclerosis cause very serious symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness of limbs, low vision and driving difficult.
Pregnancy in Multiple Sclerosis

After a few years, women diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis are advised to avoid becoming pregnant, largely due to concerns that a pregnancy could worsen Multiple Sclerosis symptoms. But studies over the past decade have demonstrated the opposite: women have noticed an improvement in their symptoms and even the symptoms can disappear during pregnancy.

One explanation may be as follows: during pregnancy immune system slows down its activity so that the anti-inflammatory hormones called corticosteroids would increase during this period. According to the latest scientific findings, women with Multiple Sclerosis face no risk of complications in pregnancy.
The team from the Metropolitan University of Santos in Brazil pieced together 22 international studies from 1980 to present, involving over 13,000 women.

The conclusion was that the disease regresses during pregnancy and is easily shortly after birth. Combined study results also show that women who suffer from Multiple Sclerosis are exposed at several risks such as: the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low fetal birth weight or birth of a baby with birth defects.

Women who are pregnant and have Multiple Sclerosis have a increased risk to develop one of this complication than a healthy women. However, it is important for women with Multiple Sclerosis to work closely with theirs doctor when they decide to have a babies and desires to get pregnant.

One of the reasons is because during pregnancy she will, most likely, need to stop medication for treating Multiple Sclerosis. Because everything must be kept under control, neurologist should communicate with the obstetrician who treat the pregnant women with Multiple Sclerosis.
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Friday, February 15, 2013

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Diagnosis Multiple sclerosis With a Simple Eye Scan

A simple eye scan could detect Multiple Sclerosis in its early stage, say U.S. researchers of UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas.

Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system, especially the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves. Multiple Sclerosis can cause difficulty in strength and muscle control, vision, balance, sensation and disorders of mental function. When this condition occurs, the protective sheath around nerves, called myelin, is attacked and nerves are exposed and inclined to damage.

There are several types of Multiple Sclerosis, the most common being the relapsing-remitting whose symptoms come and go periodically. Although any type of Multiple Sclerosis can not be cured, the evolution of the disease can be slowed by some treatments. Also, monitoring disease may also be difficult because evolution can be unpredictable. Therefore, scientists have looked for new ways to discover and pursue Multiple Sclerosis disease.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a technique used by doctors to measure retinal thickness. The measurement takes only a few minutes and can be done in any medical office. Retinal tomography and optical coherence tomography is a modern, non-invasive, non-contact investigation of the retina that uses coherent light - laser, with which the retina can be scanned and retinal layers could be analyzed.

It give a "optical biopsy" in vivo of retina that provides qualitative and quantitative information about the high resolution all its layers. In a recent clinical study of 164 people with Multiple Sclerosis, through this simple eye scan, scientist could see that patients with thinner layers of the retina have a more active and earlier Multiple Sclerosis.

"This technique offers the possibility to detect structural changes in the central nervous system, helping to diagnose Multiple Sclerosis and to identify a treatment that prevents damage to nerve cells," said Dr. Elliot Frohman, professor of neurology and ophthalmology, co-author of the study published in Annals of Neurology.

OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber thickness. Unlike the rest of the brain's nerve cells, which are covered by myelin, those in the retina shows no such coating. For this reason, experts suggest that nerve cells in the retina can show early signs of Multiple Sclerosis. The researchers look to the future with optimism, hoping that ophthalmologists will be able to use this new diagnostic method to evaluate the retina during a routine eye examination.

According to Multiple Sclerosis Society in the world, a large number of people with Multiple Sclerosis (approximately 45%) are not strongly affected by the disease and live a normal life, and in the first five years of the disease give an overview of the developments.

Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Among methods of treatment for Multiple Sclerosis, interferon beta and glatiramer acetate have the effect of slowing this disability and reducing the intensity and frequency of outbreaks. Currently, research is focused on developing a treatment to change its course.
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Monday, February 4, 2013

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Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis

Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Multiple Scleroosis is a demyelinating inflammatory condition of a region. Myelin is a layer that insulates nerves, behaving like a shell of an electric wire, enabling nerve to transmit nerve impulses quickly. Efficiency and speed with which these impulses are transmitted that allow some movement with minimal effort as light, swift and well coordinated.

In the case of Multiple Sclerosis, the myelin sheath disappearance is accompanied by diminishing the ability of nerves to conduct electrical impulses to and from the brain and this dysfunction causes various symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. Places where myelin is not present anymore(plaques or lesions) appear as scars: in Multiple Sclerosis these scars appear at different times and in different areas of the brain-stem and spinal cord. Multiple Sclerosis in simply term means many scars.

Diagnosing Multiple Sclerosis
Unlike many other diseases, there is not 100% positive or negative test for diagnosing Multiple Sclerosis, and none of the tests available will help doctors to provide a result 100% sure. So the doctor can diagnose a person with Multiple Sclerosis only after he take into account the person's symptoms, but after the patients rules out other possibilities. This method is called "clinical diagnosis".

Problems with diagnosis

Unfortunately for 10-15% of potential patients, a definite diagnosis can not be given yet even after all the available tests performed until now. However, may be excluded some important causes and symptoms of other diseases, and after a certain time, regular reviews and monitoring changes that occur in the person's condition, diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis can be given in most cases.

New diagnostic criteria for Multiple Sclerosis

International Medical and Scientific Committee of the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis developed some criteria to help doctors to distinguish Multiple Sclerosis from other diseases that may have similar symptoms. This new diagnosis criteria for Multiple Sclerosis even after a single proliferation period symptoms, analyzing MRI results. Using the new criteria, a person can be diagnosed as having Multiple Sclerosis for surely as there can have MS or MS definitely lacking.

Clinical diagnosis

Early symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are characterized by vague symptoms that occur sporadically over a prolonged period of time, and can also be attributed to other diseases. Even when a person shows classic symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis, they must to perfectly feet with the established criteria for clinical diagnosis, before doctor give certain diagnosis of  Multiple Sclerosis. The criteria are the follows: "two different regions of the central nervous system are affected, and their effects were felt in at least two different moments located at least one month difference from each other, and the person falls into the specific age of onset Multiple Sclerosis". With all that it is possible to be diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis at the first visit to a neurologist, and is quite likely to be called for further tests.
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