Showing posts with label Multiple Sclerosis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Multiple Sclerosis. Show all posts

Wednesday, August 21, 2013

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Blood Tests for MS

Scientists are working on a blood test that help doctors diagnosis multiple sclerosis nine years before symptoms starts to appear.

Achieving this would mean that just using a blood test will help sufferers to apply early treatment and to stop the disease. Currently, there is no way to detect this disease, only the symptoms announcing it. Therefore, patients are often diagnosed too late, reports the Daily Mail.

Blood Tests for MS
The team working on this project in Israel and identified certain chemicals which, if are present in the blood, they are indicating that disease will occur in future.

From Tel Aviv University's faculty of medicine, Professor Anat Achiron declared: 'Every time we meet a new patient exhibiting symptoms of MS, we must ask ourselves how long this has been going on. 'We can diagnose MS by brain MRI scans, but we've never been able to know how "fresh" the disease is.'

Multiple sclerosis occurs in young people, especially among the female.

Because it has a genetic component, detecting chemicals in one's blood test will automatically result in the person's brothers and sisters and they can start also early treatment. There are currently no cure for this disease, only the symptoms can be alleviated by following treatment.

Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system affecting the brain and spine cord. According to the Multiple Sclerosis Society, a large number of people with multiple sclerosis (approximately 45%) are not strongly affected by the disease and live a normal life, and the first five years of disease activity give an overview on the developments of symptoms.

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Tuesday, March 26, 2013

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Multiple Sclerosis- Pregnancy And Parenting

A family decision need to be taken with care when one or both partners suffer from Multiple Sclerosis. Many couples are concerned about the possibility that their children get Multiple Sclerosis. It is important for them to know that there is a small risk that if a parent has Multiple Sclerosis, the child may inherit the disease.

Although Multiple Sclerosis is not hereditary demonstrated, there is a greater risk that relatives of people with Multiple Sclerosis have this disease than other people who have no family connection with the disease. Results from studies of families with a member who had Multiple Sclerosis showed that if one parent has Multiple Sclerosis, the disease risk for their kids increases by 3-5%. If many family members have MS, or if both parents have MS, the risk may increase.

Long-term consequences of the decision to have a child must also be taken into account. Factors such as current and future level of disability, the ability of partners to take care of children and to be involved in its growth, support from family and friends, and financial security must be evaluated.

It was shown that during pregnancy there, for sick with MS, a higher risk of flares, or that the disease would have an effect on pregnancy, labor or delivery. It was found that during pregnancy, relapsing rate were reduce, but it increases in the first six months after birth. There is no evidence that Multiple Sclerosis impairs fertility or that would increase the risk of miscarriage or newborn child problems (they have birth defects or will be born dead).

Although no medications is used by all persons with Multiple Sclerosis, various medications are used to treat exacerbations of the symptoms. Some of these can be harmful to the fetus. In addition, some people follow special diets and / or medical treatments (medically supervised or not) that are considered to be beneficial in Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis sufferers who intend to become parents should always discuss any treatments or medications with their doctor before the conception, because the doctor need to decide whether any of these medication or treatment might be potentially harmful to the fetus.

It is not yet shown that pregnancy has an long-term effect on disability or about the progress of the disease. Feeding infants with breast milk does not increase the risk of relapsing after birth, but it is associated with fatigue, which can lead to a decision to give formula to the baby or more frequently mother with Multiple Sclerosis need help in taking care of the child.

The decision to have a child should not be made without considering all the other implications of this decision. Multiple Sclerosis can affect family and welfare of the child should be a priority in all arrangements. It is important to know that a child is a long-term commitment, and couples should think of the impact that Multiple Sclerosis will have on their family for at least 18 years, during which time they will be actively involved in raising a child, not only during pregnancy and the immediate post-natal period. You must understand that if one parent has Multiple Sclerosis, the couple must ensure that they receive long-term support. The decision to have a child should be based primarily on the desire to have a family and although Multiple Sclerosis involves some extra care, disease should not be considered a restriction in this regard.
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Multiple Sclerosis Lifestyle Changes

Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that requires some lifestyle changes in Multiple Sclerosis patients through their entire life. If you have little or no disability at all, your style and family will not be modified. Yet the knowledge about the disease and its long-term implications have an great impact on the person live with Multiple Sclerosis and on the loved one. Everything depends on the symptoms you have and how you feel. Symptoms may be present continuously or flare-ups may occur from time to time. The severity of symptoms can provide clues about how Multiple Sclerosis will affect your life.

Many people with Multiple Sclerosis will have to plan activities to a greater extent than in the past and will have to change the priorities and programs. If fatigue is a problem, for example, you need some rest periods per day so you can continue, but at a slower pace.

Physiotherapy and regular exercise can help you keep in optimal shape. It would be good to discuss with your doctor what treatment or what exercise program would be appropriate. It may need regular physiotherapy sessions or some exercises at home. For some people one good help may be swimming sessions, yoga and horse riding. Besides maintaining good muscle tone, exercise is a way to relax. National Multiple Sclerosis Society or local organization (in your area) can help you with exercise programs or to recommend some facilities or specialized personnel for such activities.

Have been developed over the years a multitude of diets for Multiple Sclerosis, which is normal for a disease for which there are no known causes or healing method. While diets contradict each other, the philosophy behind them is very good: a balanced diet that will provide all the vitamins and minerals you need. Some people have noticed that for them the most beneficial diet is low in animal fat and high in polyunsaturated fat. Read the section about [alternative treatment]. It is advisable to discuss changes in your diet with your doctor or dietitian.

Planning work
Because Multiple Sclerosis can make changes in your physical and cognitive capabilities is advisable to realistically assess how these changes will affect your current job. If your work requires to be in a good shape it is better to look or to prepare for another job less demanding. If you have a sedentary job, physical disability will not affect very much, allowing you to keep your position for years. In your area there may be problems counseling office or career vocational training courses.

Changes in family

One of the most difficult problems for a couple after diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis is possible to change tasks. A family with two income sources will have to learn to deal only with a paycheck (if the situation does not allow people with MS to keep his job). One of the partners will have to assume additional tasks in managing the home and caring for children and / or be sympathetic with the pace of the other partner to carry out specific tasks. For successful implementation of these changes partners should have an open discussion.
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Bladder Dysfunction Associated With Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis symptoms have traditionally been divided into three main categories:
-Primary symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis that occur as a result of current demyelination in the central nervous system;
-Secondary symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are derived from primary symptoms, for example. This symptoms will lead to bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infections, and so on;
-Tertiary symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are those that are caused by psychological reactions to stress associated with chronic disease (vocational problems, personal or marital).

In this article we chose a different approach. Some symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are easily treated, some are harder and some are very difficult to treat. This classification can be used when it is discussing about the treatment of various symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis disease.

"Instruments" used to treat these symptoms generally are divided into three main categories:
    Pharmacological treatment

It is important to understand that none of these techniques is not necessarily used in isolation, unless it is sufficient to fix certain symptoms / problems. However, usually requires a combination of this instruments to achieve an improvement of the various symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis.

Secondary urinary bladder dysfunction problems are very common in multiple sclerosis.
(1) Symptoms of urgency, frequency, urinary retention and incontinence indicate a nerve tract dysfunction of spinal cord from the brain until the sacral segments. Location of lesions in this case is not practical or even impossible.

(2) Small bladder, hypertonic, with "storage deficit" may have the same symptoms as a large bladder, hypotonic, with "empty gap".

(3) The treatment is very different. For a proper treatment, the doctor is obliged to determine what type of bladder dysfunction is present in a patient with multiple sclerosis. It is necessary to exclude any infection involved in this dysfunction. Upper urinary tract infections (kidney and ureter) are surprisingly rare in multiple sclerosis, while bladder infections are very common.

(4) A control of the bladder function before the infection is practically impossible, so if it will be detect it will primarily require antibiotic therapy and other techniques for bladder acidification. After that, residual volume measurement will elucidate whether the bladder is small and big hypertonic or overfill (both situations will create a very similar symptoms). Measurement of residual urine in a patient with multiple sclerosis can be done by catheterization or by ultrasound. Bladder rehabilitation therapists experienced in patients with overactive bladder can train to help reduce the frequency and urgency of urination.

(5) It is necessary to have a skilled professional and highly motivated patient to take full advantage of these techniques, but it certainly is possible. If the bladder is detected to be small (with a small residual volume), anticholinergic treatment will reduce the frequency and urgency of the call.

(6) There are many anticholinergic agents, varying according to region (eg. Oxibutina, tolteridina, tartrate , solifenacin, darifenacin and hyoscyamine). Dose increases until it will reach maximum effect, it is to note that anticholinergic treatment reduces sweating, it caused an increase in body temperature and a worsening of initial symptoms. If residual volume is high (> 150 cm3), it seems logical to use agents that will increase the flow of urine. Alpha-adrenergic blockers and preparations used in the treatment of prostate adenoma (tamsulosin, terazosin and prazosin) are frequently used in such patients with multiple sclerosis but with little success.

(7)Catheterization techniques can be useful, if they were correctly executed. If the person with MS has retained sensitivity and coordination will practice hands intermittent self-catheterization. It is clean (not sterile) and by reducing residual urine volume, will reduce the frequency of infectious complications.

(8) If necessary, will assign a hypokinetic anticholinergic drug to reduce the frequency of catheterization. otherwise (upper limb coordination disorders) will make use of Foley catheter with continuous drainage. If infection rate may be increased to a certain extent with this catheter should not ignore an improvement in the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis.
There are situations when patients with multiple sclerosis bladder sphincter to contract even when bladder contraction. This causes dissinergie ischiurie, calling compelling and urinary retention.

(9) dissinergie degree can be measured by urodynamic testing in case if it fails an improvement in bladder function by the methods mentioned above, this test can give us an answer. Disinergia is very important in men with multiple sclerosis, once increased pressure causes urinary reflux into the ureters and renal calicele. Even though it can be a problem for women, because of the anatomical its probability is much lower.

The urologists often do not attract much attention in multiple sclerosis bladder given that few treatment strategies that are available to help in this case. However, if an overactive bladders unresponsive to oral agents, botulinum toxin injected into the bladder wall can help reduce bladder overactivity status in patients with multiple sclerosis.
(10) Electrical stimulation of the bladder sphincter can be useful in some situations problematic, but this technique remains experimental bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.
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Monday, February 4, 2013

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What Is Multiple Sclerosis Disease?

Multiple Sclerosis Disease
It's been over a century since Jean-Martin Charcot described clinical and pathological characteristics of Multiple Sclerosis with unpredictable and progressive evolution, affecting the brain and spinal cord, especially in young people (20-30 years) and women. Multiple Sclerosis is a disease quite common. On the planet more than  2 million patients have been prognosticated with multiple sclerosis.

Multiple Sclerosis, also known by many people as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system, especially the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves.
Multiple sclerosis can cause difficulty in strength and muscle control, vision, balance, sensation and disorders of mental function. Brain, spinal cord and optic nerves are connected by nerves and nerve fibers. A protein called myelin surrounds and protects nerve fibers. When myelin becomes inflamed or is destroyed (a process called demyelination) the result is disruption of normal flow of nerve impulses to the central nervous system.

Demyelination process and its result leads to stopping the flow of nerve impulses and in that way occurs  a disease known as Multiple Sclerosis. In many cases, the cells (oligodendrocytes) that synthesize myelin are destroyed, as nerve fibers (axons). In this case, the body is unable to restore myelin or nerve fibers, which will contribute more to the development of disability.

It is considered that Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the patient's immune system affects myelin and myelin-forming cells (oligodendrocyte). Until now, doctors and researchers from different countries have proposed several etiologic factors in Multiple Sclerosis:
   -viruses - damages the glial cells through a direct mechanism;
   -bacteria - which may contain antigens similar to those of the central nervous system and may lead to cross reactions (immune system forms antibodies against bacteria but attacks the central nervous system elements that are structurally similar to bacterial antigen);
   -defective function of oligodendrocytes;
   -diet - which can affect membrane composition and functions of macrophages and oligodendrocytes;
   -genetic factor - predisposition to brain antigens response and lower control immune response;
   -other factors - toxins, stress, trauma, climate, diet.

What cause Multiple Sclerosis remains unknown. It could be a genetic factor involved, because the risk of Multiple Sclerosis in a person is slightly increased if one parent has Multiple Sclerosis. The bond, not always obvious, from where (geographically) the affected person spend his childhood and the risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis later in life, suggests that some environmental factors could be involved in developing Multiple Sclerosis. However, until now there has clearly demonstrated that some specific infection would cause Multiple Sclerosis.

There are other factors suspected to be triggers for Multiple Sclerosis, but so far has not been shown that any of them would be involved for sure. Research studies in progress suggest that a problem in the body's natural defense system (immune system) appears in childhood or early after infection may trigger the onset of Multiple Sclerosis. Can trigger an autoimmune reaction in which the immune system attacks myelin.

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis vary from person to person, depending on what part of the brain or spinal cord is affected. Loss of myelin and scarring caused by Multiple Sclerosis can affect any region of the central nervous system. Symptoms may come and go or become more or less severe from day to day or, more rarely, from one hour to another. Symptoms may become more severe with increasing (or less frequently, lower) body temperature or after a viral infection. Some symptoms of MS, such as spastic tremor, pain and difficulty in thinking clearly, are similar to those occurring in other diseases and does not necessarily mean that it's Multiple Sclerosis.

In general, Multiple Sclerosis may develop in one of the four ways below:
1. Relapse-remission: evolution consists of alternating periods of active disease when symptoms flare, with periods when symptoms improve, this cycle can last for many years, in periods of remission, the disease is not progressing;
2. Secondary Progressive: Active symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are constantly progressive, with further damage to central nervous system symptoms usually worsen as the disease progresses
3. Primary progressive: the disease is progressive from the beginning, although the rate of degradation of the central nervous system varies from person to person and differs from the same person, this mode of evolution of Multiple Sclerosis is not very common, but can be devastating;
4. Progressive relapse: evolution is a rare form of Multiple Sclerosis, which causes a steady degradation of the nerves, which begins with the onset of symptoms and continue to affect the central nervous system even when the symptoms are not present.

Many people with Multiple Sclerosis do not have to follow the exact evolution of these models. Evolution is often difficult to predict. Not only that it differ from one person to another, but the development could change in the same individual over time. Multiple Sclerosis tends to be more severe in men than in women, particularly in middle-aged men who develop the disease.

Typically, Multiple Sclerosis evolves with more episodes of relapse occurring over several years. In many people, the first episode of Multiple Sclerosis has only a single symptom. It may take several weeks, months or years until a relapse. As time passes, the symptoms may persist after each relapse, so they lose the ability to complete recovery after the relapsing episode. When new symptoms occurs, they often will affect other areas of the brain or spinal cord.

Complications that can result from multiple sclerosis are:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): people with Multiple Sclerosis often have trouble urinating and inability to control or eliminate urine; these difficulties increase the risk of UTIs;
2. Constipation: slow intestinal motility and intestinal spasms, and decreased physical activity are common in people with Multiple Sclerosis and can cause constipation;
3. Painful pressure points: they occur when a person is forced to stay in bed for long periods of time, especially if it is unable to change position;
4. Decreased ability to move or walk, which involves using a wheelchair all the time or from time to time.

Multiple sclerosis should not interfere with most health care procedures applied routinely, such as dental anesthesia, general anesthesia (unless the person has breathing problems) or immunizations, such as flu.
In severe forms, Multiple Sclerosis can affect movement and travel, limit daily activity, especially as you age.
Many people with Multiple Sclerosis have different degrees of disability, but it is not always severe or constant. In a recent study on aging people who have Multiple Sclerosis, a third of them retained their work and two-thirds were to go to 25 years after onset.

If someone has Multiple Sclerosis, it is indicated to go to the closest doctor for a long discussion about how this disease can affect everyday life. More complete knowledge of the ways of evolution and possible complications will be useful in developing future plans.

The risk of multiple sclerosis increases according to:
-Geographic location or place where the person grew (up to 15): those who lived in the first 15 years of life in regions with cold climates, those that are farther from the equator tend to have more likely to make Multiple Sclerosis than people who lived in regions closer to the equator during these years.
-If there were cases of Multiple Sclerosis in the family: people who have a parent or relative rank first (including a monozygotic twin) with Multiple Sclerosis have a slightly increased risk of making the condition
- Race: people living in Western Europe for generations, have a higher probability of developing Multiple Sclerosis, is uncommon in Native Americans (American Indians), Eskimos and Africans
- Sex: Multiple Sclerosis is approximately three times more common in women than in men.

It is well indicated to see a doctor if for a longer period of time is present at least one of the following symptoms:
1 Blurred vision, dark spots, eye pain, vision loss or double vision;
2 Feeling of weakness or heaviness, involuntary leg dragging, stiffness, difficulty walking and awkwardness / clumsiness;
3 Tingling or stinging needle, numbness, banda gather around the body, arms or legs;
4 Sensations like electric shocks moving along the back, to arms or down to the feet;
5 Inability to urinate or empty your bladder completely;
6 dizziness;
7 Instability, insecurity feet;
8 Memory problems, decreased attention span, difficulty finding appropriate words or difficulty to solve daily problems.
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