Wednesday, August 21, 2013

Investigations in MS

Multiple sclerosis is diagnosed when neurological tests and neurological examination reveals with certainty lesions in more than one area of ??the central nervous system (usually in the brain and spinal cord) and the injury occurs more than one time in life.

The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is whether there is an association between the following conditions:
- Two separate episodes of neurologic symptoms such as weakness or clumsiness, vision problems, tingling or numbness or balance disorders that are objectified by a neurologist, each episode must have a duration of at least 24 hours and episodes should appear in at different time.
- Symptoms that indicate the existence of lesions in more than one region of the central nervous system and laboratory tests which highlights anomalies corresponding to multiple sclerosis.
- It is sure that there is no other condition that can cause these symptoms and the laboratory results.

Medical history and neurological examination can identify possible nervous system problems and often enough to suggest the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Tests can help confirm or exclude this diagnosis, if only history and neurological examination can not argue with certainty the existence of this disease.

Test for Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis

- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord: is performed to confirm the diagnosis and help the doctor decide which treatment is best. More than 90% of people with MS have an abnormal MRI, in people already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, MRI is also useful to assess disease progression (MRI and neurological examination may be helpful in formulating a prognosis after a first episode of symptoms that people with MS will make in future)
- Lumbar puncture can be performed to examine the cerebrospinal fluid: the majority of people with MS have abnormal results on this test, such as abnormal levels of proteins called immunoglobulins G (IgG) or a slight increase of leukocytes (white blood cells)
- Evoked potential test: can sometimes show the existence of anomalies of the brain and spinal cord and optic nerve, the neurological examination and other tests can not detect them, test called visual evoked potential is the most important of these types of tests diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Tests used to diagnose disorders associated

Urine tests may be needed to diagnose a problem in controlling bladder function in a person with multiple sclerosis.
Neuropsychological tests can be helpful in identifying emotional or thinking problems that may be present without the person to realize them. Typically, these tests are in the form of questions and answers.

Currently studies are in touch with a new test, which consists in identifying antibodies in multiple sclerosis, the hope is that it may help to identify those who will develop active multiple sclerosis after a first episode of symptoms. If this test proves to be effective, it can help diagnose multiple sclerosis assets.

It is important that the person already diagnosed with multiple sclerosis to be reviewed if new problems. New symptoms may be caused by other diseases treatable rather than multiple sclerosis or may be a sign that the disease has been a change that could affect treatment decisions.

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